Dr. T.J. Litwinska-Kemperink 
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Geostatistical techniques have become a standard part of commercial interpretation software. However, these methods should not be regarded as a black box, disconnected from the constraints
provided by the statistical theory.
Consequently:

- empirical data must be tested for stationarity and stochastical
  independence;

- sufficient big sample size or a normal distribution of measured data may
  be a further requirement to be proved statistically;

- significance tests and confidence intervals are important.

Therefore, complex statistical calculations, such as:

- analysis of variance and regression
- analysis of trend
- Kriging and Co-Kriging

should be performed individually, problem-oriented and depending on data
quality.


Probability estimation based on semi-MARKOV models

Different log data of bore holes penetrating cyclic sedimentation are
investigated.

The estimated probability matrix describes the transitions between different
lithological units, whereas the derived conditional distribution functions give
the distribution of thickness.

A semi-MARKOV model is useful for:

- Comparison of different sedimentation environments;
- Simulation of sedimentation processes;
- Log reconstruction.

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